# How to Compute 13th Month Pay in the Philippines

## What is the 13th month pay in the Philippines?

The 13th month pay is a mandatory benefit in the Philippines that provides employees with an extra month’s salary. It is a form of financial assistance given to all regular employees, regardless of whether they are working in the public or private sector. This additional compensation is intended to help employees meet their financial obligations during the holiday season, including expenses for celebrations, gifts, and other necessities.

The requirement for employers to provide the 13th month pay is mandated by Presidential Decree No. 851, which was issued in 1975 by the then-President Ferdinand Marcos. The decree ensures that employees receive a fair share of their companies’ profits or earnings. The 13th month pay is calculated based on a specific formula, taking into account the employee’s basic monthly salary and the length of service within a calendar year.

It is important to note that the 13th month pay should not be confused with the Christmas bonus or other bonuses that employers may choose to give to their employees. While those bonuses are voluntary and often based on the company’s discretion, the 13th month pay is a legal requirement that employers must fulfill. Failure to provide the 13th month pay can result in penalties for employers.

To compute the 13th month pay, you need to follow a specific formula. The basic monthly salary of the employee is divided by twelve (the number of months in a year) and then multiplied by the number of months the employee has worked during the calendar year. The result is the employee’s 13th month pay.

## Formula for computing the 13th month pay

To illustrate the formula further, let’s consider an example. Suppose an employee has a basic monthly salary of PHP 30,000 and has been employed for the entire calendar year. To compute the 13th month pay, you would divide PHP 30,000 by twelve, which equals PHP 2,500. Then, multiply PHP 2,500 by twelve (the number of months worked), which gives a 13th month pay of PHP 30,000.

However, if an employee has not worked for the entire calendar year, the number of months worked should be adjusted accordingly. For instance, if the employee has only worked for six months, then the 13th month pay would be PHP 15,000 (PHP 2,500 multiplied by six).

It is essential for employers to comply with the 13th month pay requirement to ensure fair compensation for their employees. This benefit not only helps employees manage their expenses but also boosts morale and loyalty within the workplace. Employees appreciate the additional financial support during the holiday season, and employers can enhance their reputation as responsible and caring employers.

In conclusion, the 13th month pay is a mandatory benefit in the Philippines that provides employees with an extra month’s salary. It is calculated based on a specific formula using the employee’s basic monthly salary and the number of months worked within a calendar year. Employers should ensure compliance with this requirement to foster a positive working environment and show appreciation for their employees’ hard work and dedication.

## Who is entitled to receive the 13th month pay?

All employees in the Philippines, regardless of their employment status, are entitled to receive the 13th month pay. This includes regular employees, probationary employees, seasonal employees, and even those working on a project or fixed-term basis. Both full-time and part-time employees are eligible for this benefit. The provision for the 13th month pay is mandated by law to ensure that every worker in the country receives fair compensation during the holiday season.

The requirement for employers to grant the 13th month pay is specified in Presidential Decree No. 851, which was enacted in 1975. This law aims to provide additional income to employees and promote the spirit of solidarity among workers.

In addition to regular employees, the law also covers certain categories of employees who may not be regularly employed, such as seafarers, house helpers, rural workers, and others. However, there are a few exceptions, such as government employees who already receive a similar benefit called the yearend bonus. SSS/GSI members, casual employees, and those classified as managerial or supervisory are also not eligible for the 13th month pay.

## How is the 13th month pay computed?

The computation of the 13th month pay in the Philippines follows a simple formula. It is calculated by dividing the employee’s total basic salary earned within the calendar year by 12. This means that the 13th month pay is equivalent to one-twelfth (1/12) of the employee’s total basic salary for the year.

The basic salary refers to the employee’s fixed compensation excluding allowances, overtime pay, bonuses, and other additional benefits. It is the regular wage or salary received by an employee for performing their usual tasks or duties. It does not include commissions, non-cash payments, and other similar forms of compensation.

To compute the 13th month pay, the employer must determine the employee’s total basic salary earned from January to December. This includes all regular salary payments, but excludes non-taxable income such as overtime pay, night differential, and holiday pay.

For example, if an employee’s total basic salary for the year amounts to Php 300,000, the computation for the 13th month pay would be as follows:

13th Month Pay = 300,000 / 12

13th Month Pay = Php 25,000

Therefore, the employee would be entitled to receive a 13th month pay amounting to Php 25,000.

It is important to note that all employers in the Philippines are required by law to provide their employees with a 13th month pay, regardless of the nature of their employment, designation, or status. The 13th month pay should be paid in cash and given to the employees not later than December 24th of each year.

Furthermore, the 13th month pay is not subject to any tax deductions and should be received in full by the employee. It is a separate benefit from the annual performance bonus or other incentives that an employee may receive.

The computation of the 13th month pay helps ensure that employees receive a fair share of their annual earnings, especially during the holiday season. It is an additional income that can be used for various purposes such as expenses, savings, and celebrations.

In summary, the 13th month pay in the Philippines is computed by dividing the employee’s total basic salary earned within the calendar year by 12. It is a mandatory benefit that all employers must provide to their employees, and it should be paid in cash before December 24th of each year. The 13th month pay is a valuable source of income for employees and contributes to their financial well-being, particularly during the holiday season.

## What is included in the computation of the 13th month pay?

The computation of the 13th month pay includes all basic salary received by the employee, as well as de minimis benefits and regular allowances. The 13th month pay is a mandatory benefit granted to all employees in the Philippines, regardless of their employment status, during the Christmas season.

The basic salary refers to the fixed monthly compensation received by the employee, excluding additional benefits such as overtime pay, night differential, and commissions. It is the base amount on which the 13th month pay will be calculated.

De minimis benefits, on the other hand, are non-taxable benefits given to employees in addition to their basic salary. These benefits include but are not limited to:

• Monetized unused vacation leave credits
• Monetized unused sick leave credits
• Holiday pay
• Thirteenth-month pay
• Cash conversion of unused service incentive leave
• Uniforms and clothing allowances
• Medical assistance
• Aid for employees affected by natural or man-made calamities
• Employer’s contribution to SSS, Pag-IBIG, and PhilHealth
• Other benefits of similar nature

Regular allowances are additional payments given to employees on top of their basic salary. These are fixed amounts granted regularly, such as transportation allowances, meal allowances, and hazard pay.

It’s important to note that bonuses and cash equivalents of unused vacation and sick leave credits are not included in the computation of the 13th month pay. These are separate from the 13th month pay and are subject to different rules and regulations.

Once all the components are identified, the total amount of the basic salary, de minimis benefits, and regular allowances will be added together. The sum will then be divided by 12, representing the 12 months of the year, to determine the employee’s 13th month pay.

The 13th month pay aims to provide employees with additional income during the holiday season, allowing them to celebrate and support their families. It serves as a reward for their hard work throughout the year and a way to spread holiday cheer in the workplace.

In conclusion, the computation of the 13th month pay in the Philippines considers the basic salary, de minimis benefits, and regular allowances of the employee. By following the proper calculation process, employers can ensure that their employees receive the correct amount of 13th month pay, creating a positive and festive atmosphere in the workplace.

## When and how should the 13th month pay be paid?

Employers in the Philippines are required to pay the 13th month pay on or before December 24th of each year, either in full or in two installments.

The 13th month pay, also known as the Christmas bonus, is a mandatory benefit for all employees in the Philippines. It is an additional payment equivalent to one-twelfth (1/12) of the basic salary earned within a calendar year. However, it is important to know that the 13th month pay is different from the annual bonus or performance-based incentives, which are given at the employer’s discretion.

The payment can be made in two installments, with the first half paid on or before June 30th and the second half on or before December 24th. If the employer opts for the two-payment scheme, the first installment cannot be less than 50% of the employee’s total 13th month pay earned during the calendar year. The remaining balance should be paid not later than December 24th, as required by law.

Employers must keep in mind that failure to pay the 13th month pay on time may result in penalties and legal consequences. It is important to comply with the law to avoid any issues or disputes with employees.

It should be noted that the 13th month pay is given to all employees regardless of their employment status, including probationary, regular, and contractual employees. Even if an employee has resigned or was terminated before the payout date, they are still entitled to receive the proportional amount of the 13th month pay for the months they have worked.

In some cases, the employer and the employee may agree on a different computation scheme for the 13th month pay. However, this should be mutually agreed upon and should not be less favorable to the employee than the standard computation method mandated by law.

The 13th month pay is a significant benefit for Filipino workers, especially during the holiday season when expenses tend to increase. Employers should ensure that they properly compute and pay the 13th month pay to their employees in compliance with the law.

In conclusion, employers in the Philippines are required to pay the 13th month pay on or before December 24th of each year, either in full or in two installments. It is a mandatory benefit for all employees and should be computed based on their basic salary earned within a calendar year. Failure to comply with the law may result in penalties and legal consequences, so it is important for employers to fulfill this obligation to their employees.